Saturday, April 5, 2008

Water 102: Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

photo credit: Andrew Wallace

Its time to move on. Granted we're making a big jump from the basics to the more advanced. But I'll try my best to explain this as simply as possible.

Water (and wastewater/sewage) treatment can be done on an individual basis or en masse. Treatment plants are just mass water decontamination sites. They both use a combination of the processes discussed in "Water 101: Decontamination" to clean water.

Most developed countries (and the urban areas of developing countries) use centralized water distribution and sewer collection systems. Centralizing water and wastewater have their ups and downs, and I don't necessarily think that centralizing everything is the best way for every country, but its the way things are done at the moment.

Schematic Diagram of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (source: Ohio State University)

What's the difference between a water and wastewater treatment plant??

Generally, its the type of water that comes in--a Water Treatment Plant (WTP) generally takes water from ground, surface, or rainwater sources, makes it drinkable and distributes it to water storage tanks or directly to people; a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) generally collects sewage and other waste water (and in some cases stormwater) from various sites, cleans it and releases it back into the environment at a safe level for humans, fish, and plants to be around. Golf courses or parks that say "watered with reclaimed wastewater" often refer to this water.

WTPs generally are smaller operations than WWTPs, because of the water quality coming in. Generally WTPs just need a bit of cleaning and disinfection (because the water is generally clean already). WWTPs take pretty nasty sewage water (from industries and homes and businesses and schools) and get rid of most of the nastiness. This is why WWTPs are much larger and more elaborate. The solids generally end up going to landfills, the liquid (water) is cleaned and purified until it is safe for humans, animals and plants.

Is reclaimed wastewater potable??

Depends...on how clean they (the WWTPs) make the water before releasing it. It is definitely possible to take wastewater and put it through a series of cleaning steps to make it potable. But it can be expensive, which is why most wastewater treatment plants in the world don't generally do these extra steps. But as clean water resources get scarcer and the human population grows, it will become increasingly likely (and less expensive) to create fully recycled water plants.

Personally, I think the biggest barrier is not the technology or the expense, but rather the human factor. People are just not comfortable drinking water that entered a factory as sewage a few days before.

Reclaimed water: potable or not?? (photo credit: Peyri Leigh)

Resources: : Wastewater plants

The USGS site for wastewater Treatment

How Water Treatment Plants work

FAQs about WWTPs
The Water Environment Federation's engaging presentation on WTP and WWTP

Using microorganisms in cleaning up water


Anonymous said...

Pragnya, I simply love your blogs! I read them everyday without fail and really enjoy hearing what you have to say about water treatment. It's definitely good reading! Keep up the good work :-)

Julia said...

Love the blog! Can't stop reading it!

comarthavie said...

Thanks for stopping by Julia and anonymous. I really do appreciate the support and readership. Please let me know if there are other topics you are interested in.

Shubham Inc. said...

Advantage of wastewater treatment :
Depending upon the direction of flow through filter, these are designated as…
1. Down flow,
2. Up flow
3. Bi-flow
4. Radial flow
5. Horizontal flow filters.

Based on filter media and bed, filters has been categorized into
1. Pressure Sand filter or mono-media filter
2. Multi media filter
3. Dual media filter
4. Activated Carbon filter
5. Iron Removal Filter
6. Arsenic Removal Filter
7. Screen Filter System

Based on driving force and pressure filter can be.
1. Slow Sand Filter
2. Rapid Sand Filter
3. Pressure Sand Filter

Shubahm provide a wide range of Water Filter Plant for the different applications like Water Pre-treatment, surface water treatment, Tertiary filter, cooling tower side stream filter etc.

amy said...

The best way to treat the waste water is by using the sand filtration application that removes the turbidity and suspended solids from water.